Azure Functions

#CASBAN6: Function base class (and an update to the DTO models)

#CASBAN6: Function base class (and an update to the DTO models)

After we have been setting up our Azure Function project last time, we are now able to create a base class for our Azure functions. The main goal is to achieve a common configuration for all functions to make our life easier later on.

CRUD defintion

Our API endpoints should provide us a CRUD (Create-Read-Update-Delete) interface. Our implementation will reflect this pattern as follows:

  • A creation endpoint
  • Two read endpoints – one for list results (like a list of posts) and one for receiving details of an entity
  • An update endpoint to change existing entities
  • A delete endpoint

As all of our entities are tied to a single blog’s Id, we will use this base class for all entities besides the Blog entity itself.

The base class

    public abstract class BlogFunctionBase
        internal readonly BlogContext BlogContext;
        internal ILogger? Logger;
        internal JsonSerializerSettings? JsonSerializerSettings;

        protected BlogFunctionBase(BlogContext blogContext)
            BlogContext = blogContext ?? throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(blogContext));


        private void CreateNewtonSoftSerializerSettings()
            JsonSerializerSettings = NewtonsoftJsonObjectSerializer.CreateJsonSerializerSettings();

            JsonSerializerSettings.ContractResolver = new CamelCasePropertyNamesContractResolver();

            JsonSerializerSettings.NullValueHandling = NullValueHandling.Ignore;
            JsonSerializerSettings.Formatting = Formatting.Indented;
            JsonSerializerSettings.ReferenceLoopHandling = ReferenceLoopHandling.Ignore;
            JsonSerializerSettings.DateFormatHandling = DateFormatHandling.IsoDateFormat;
            JsonSerializerSettings.DateParseHandling = DateParseHandling.DateTimeOffset;

        public virtual Task<HttpResponseData> Create([HttpTrigger(AuthorizationLevel.Anonymous, "post", Route = null)] HttpRequestData req,
            string blogId) =>
            throw new NotImplementedException();

        public virtual Task<HttpResponseData> GetList([HttpTriggerAttribute(AuthorizationLevel.Anonymous, "get", Route = null)] HttpRequestData req, string blogId) =>
            throw new NotImplementedException();

        public virtual Task<HttpResponseData> GetSingle([HttpTriggerAttribute(AuthorizationLevel.Anonymous, "get", Route = null)] HttpRequestData req, string blogId, string id) =>
            throw new NotImplementedException();

        public virtual Task<HttpResponseData> Update([HttpTriggerAttribute(AuthorizationLevel.Anonymous, "put", Route = null)] HttpRequestData req, string blogId, string id) =>
            throw new NotImplementedException();

        public virtual Task<HttpResponseData> Delete([HttpTriggerAttribute(AuthorizationLevel.Anonymous, "delete", Route = null)] HttpRequestData req, string blogId, string id) =>
            throw new NotImplementedException();


Knowing the definition of our API endpoints, there shouldn’t be any surprises with that implementation. As a base class, the definition is of course abstract.

In the constructor, I am setting up how JSON objects will be handled. I am following common practices in formatting. The only thing that is different from using JSON.NET directly is the fact we need to explicitly use the NewtonsoftJsonObjectSerializer.CreateJsonSerializerSettings method to create an instance of the JsonSerializerSettings property.

We also have an internal ILogger? property, which will be used in the derived class to create a typed instance for logging purposes. Last but not least, I am enforcing passing in a BlogContext instance from our Entity Framework implementation.

If you look at the method declaration, you’ll see the authorization level is set to Anonymous. As I am using Azure Active Directory, I am handling the authorization on a separate layer (there will be a post on that topic as well). Besides that, there is nothing special. All methods need a blogId and those endpoints that interact with a resource need a resource id as well.

The blog entity has a similar structure, with some differences in the parameter definitions. To keep things simple, I decided to let it be different from the base class definition above. We will see this in the next post of this series.

Update to the DTO models

While the blog series is ongoing, it still lags a bit behind on what I am currently working on (you can follow the dev branch on GitHub for an up-to-date view). As I am currently working on the administration client for our blog, I started to implement an SDK that can be used by all clients (the blog’s website will also just be a client). See the original post on DTOs here.

To be able to create a generic implementation of the calls to the API endpoints, I needed to create also a base class for the DTO models. It is a very simple class, as you can see:

public abstract class DtoModelBase
    public virtual Guid? BlogId { get; set; }

    public virtual Guid? ResourceId { get; set; }

This base class allows me to specify a Type that derives from it in the SDK API calls – which was my main goal. Second, I have now a common ResourceId property instead of the Id being named after the class name of the DTO. Both properties are virtual to allow me to specify the Required attributes in the derived classes as needed. You can see these changes on GitHub.

The reason I am writing about the change already today is that it will have impact on how the functions are implemented, as both the API functions and the Client SDK use the same DTO classes.


In this post, we had a look at the base class for our Azure functions we will use as an API and on the updated DTO models. With this prerequisite post in place, we will have a look at the function implementations in the next post.

Until the next post, happy coding, everyone!

Posted by msicc in Azure, Dev Stories, MAUI, 0 comments
#CASBAN6: Setting up an Azure Functions project for the API

#CASBAN6: Setting up an Azure Functions project for the API

Now that we have our Entity Framework project in place and our DTO mappings ready, it is finally time to create the API for our blogging engine. I am using Azure Functions for this.

Out-of-Process vs. In-Process

Azure Functions can be run in-process or in an isolated process. The isolated project decouples the function app from the underlying process, which enables additional features like custom middleware and Dependency Injection. Besides that, it allows you to run non-LTS versions, which can be helpful sometimes. These were the main reasons for choosing the Out-of-Process model. If you want to learn more about that topic, I recommend reading the docs.

Create the project

As you may have noticed, I recently became kind of a fan of JetBrains’ Rider IDE. Some steps may be different if done in Visual Studio, but you will be able to follow along.

First, make sure you have the Azure plugin installed. Go to the Settings, and select Plugins on the list at the left-hand side. Search for ‘Azure’ and install the Azure Toolkit for Rider. You will need to restart the application.

JetBrains Rider Plugin Settings

Once you have the plugin installed, open your solution and create a new project in it (I made it in a separate folder). Select the Azure Functions template on the left.

JetBrains Rider New Project dialog with Azure Functions selected.

I named the project BlogFunctions. Select the Isolated worker runtime option, and as Framework, we keep it on .NET 6 for the time being.

NuGet packages and project references

To enable all the functionalities we are going to use and add, we need some NuGet packages:

  • Microsoft.Azure.Functions.Worker, Version=1.10.0
  • Microsoft.Azure.Functions.Worker.Sdk, Version=1.7.0
  • Microsoft.Azure.Functions.Worker.Extensions.Http, Version=3.0.13
  • Microsoft.Azure.Functions.Worker.Extensions.ServiceBus, Version=5.7.0
  • Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection, Version=6.0.1
  • Microsoft.Azure.Core.NewtonsoftJson, Version=1.0.0

Please note that I use the latest version that support .NET 6 and not the .NET 7. We also need to reference the projects we already created before, as you can see in this picture:

Project and Package references in the Function app


Now we finally can have a look at our Program.cs file. I am not using top-level statements here, but feel free if you want to, the code doesn’t change, just the surroundings.

To make our application running, we need to create a new HostBuilder object. I still prefer Newtonsoft.Json over System.Text.Json, so let’s add that one first:

IHost? host = new HostBuilder().ConfigureFunctionsWorkerDefaults(worker => worker.UseNewtonsoftJson()).Build();


In order to be able to use our Entity Framework project we created already earlier, we need to add a ConnectionString and also configure the application to instantiate our DBContext. Update the code above as follows:

string? sqlConnectionString = Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable("SqlConnectionString");

IHost? host = 
	new HostBuilder().
		ConfigureFunctionsWorkerDefaults(worker => worker.UseNewtonsoftJson()).              
		ConfigureServices(services =>
			if (!string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(sqlConnectionString))
				services.AddDbContext<BlogContext>(options =>


The connection string will be read from the local.settings.json file locally and from the Function app’s configuration on Azure. For the moment, just add your local ConnectionString:

  "IsEncrypted": false,
    "Values": {
        "FUNCTIONS_WORKER_RUNTIME": "dotnet-isolated",
        "AzureWebJobsStorage": "UseDevelopmentStorage=true",
        "SqlConnectionString": "Data Source=localhost;Initial Catalog=localDB;User ID=sa;Password=thisShouldB3Stronger!",

Side note: If you have a look into the GitHub repo, you will see that there are some entries for OpenAPI in both files. The OpenAPI integration will get its own blog post later in this blog series, but for this post, they are not important.


In this post, we had a look at how to set up an Azure Functions app with Newtonsoft.Json and our Entity.Framework DbContext. In the next post, we will have a look at some Extensions that will be helpful, as well as the base class implementation of most functions within the app. As always, I hope this post was helpful for some of you.

Until the next post, happy coding, everyone!

Posted by msicc in Azure, Dev Stories, 2 comments
#CASBAN6: the DTOs and mappings

#CASBAN6: the DTOs and mappings

We already have created our database and our entities, so let’s have a look at how we bring the data to our API consuming applications.

If we recap, our entity models contain all the relations and identifiers. This could lead to some issues like circular references during serialization and unnecessary data repetition. Luckily for us, there is already a solution for this—it’s called data transfer object (DTO). The main purposes of a DTO is to serve data while being serializable (see also Wikipedia).

The DTO project

If you have been following along, you might already have guessed that I have created a separate project for the DTO model classes. The overall structure is similar to what you have already seen in my last post, where I showed you the entity model.


Let’s have an exemplary look at the Medium entity class:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;

namespace MSiccDev.ServerlessBlog.EntityModel
    public class Medium
        public Guid MediumId { get; set; }

        public Uri MediumUrl { get; set; }

        public string AlternativeText { get; set; }

        public string Description { get; set; }

        public Guid MediumTypeId { get; set; }
        public MediumType MediumType { get; set; }

        public Guid BlogId { get; set; }
        public Blog Blog { get; set; }

        public ICollection<Post> Posts { get; set; }
        public ICollection<Author> Authors { get; set; }

        public List<PostMediumMapping> PostMediumMappings { get; set; }


The entity contains all relationships on the database. Our API will constrain a lot of them already down (we will see in a later post how), for example by requiring the BlogId for every call as primary identifier. There are a lot of other connection points, but we also want to be able to use the Medium endpoint just for managing media.

Here is the Medium DTO:

using System;
namespace MSiccDev.ServerlessBlog.DtoModel
    public class Medium
        public Guid MediumId { get; set; }

        public Uri MediumUrl { get; set; }

        public string AlternativeText { get; set; }

        public string Description { get; set; }

        public MediumType MediumType { get; set; }

        public bool? IsPostImage { get; set; } = null;

The class contains all the information we need. With this DTO, we will be able to manage media files alone but also in its usage context (which is mostly within posts of a blog).

Mapping helpers

To convert entity objects to data transfer objects and vice versa, we are using mappings. Mappings are converters that bring the data into the desired shape. On the contrary to our model classes, mappings are allowed to modify data during the conversion.

No library this time

If you are wondering why I am not using one of the established libraries for mappings, there are several reasons. When I came to the point of DTO implementation in the developing process, I evaluated the options for the mappings.

All of them had quite a learning curve, in the end, I was faster writing my own mappings. On bigger systems like shops or similar projects, I would probably have chosen the other path. There is also a small chance I change my mind one day, which would result in a refactoring session then.

Both mapping helper classes are, once again, in their own project.

Converting entities to DTOs

As you can see in the EntityToDtoMapExtensions class, I created extension methods for all entity objects. To remain on the Medium class, here are the particular implementations (there should be no surprise):

public static DtoModel.Medium ToDto(this EntityModel.Medium entity)
    return new DtoModel.Medium()
        MediumId = entity.MediumId,
        MediumType = entity.MediumType.ToDto(),
        MediumUrl = entity.MediumUrl,
        AlternativeText = entity.AlternativeText,
        Description = entity.Description

public static DtoModel.MediumType ToDto(this EntityModel.MediumType entity)
    return new DtoModel.MediumType()
        MediumTypeId = entity.MediumTypeId,
        MimeType = entity.MimeType,
        Name = entity.Name,
        Encoding = entity.Encoding

You may have noticed that I am not setting the IsPostImage property from within the extension. The information is only important in the context of a post, which is why the ToDto method for the post is setting it to true or false. Otherwise, it will be null and can be omitted in the API response.

Converting DTOs to entities

There are two scenarios where we need to convert DTOs to entities: one is the creation of new entities, the other is updating existing entities. Being very creative with the names, I implemented a CreateFrom and an UpdateWith method for each DTO type.

You can have a look at all implementations on Github, like above, here we are focusing on the Medium DTO extensions:

public static EntityModel.Medium CreateFrom(this DtoModel.Medium dto, Guid blogId)
    return new EntityModel.Medium()
        BlogId = blogId,
        MediumId = dto.MediumId,
        MediumTypeId = dto.MediumType?.MediumTypeId ?? default,
        MediumUrl = dto.MediumUrl,
        AlternativeText = dto.AlternativeText,
        Description = dto.Description,

public static EntityModel.Medium UpdateWith(this EntityModel.Medium existingMedium, DtoModel.Medium updatedMedium)
    if (existingMedium.MediumId != updatedMedium.MediumId)
        throw new ArgumentException("MediumId must be equal in UPDATE operation.");

    if (existingMedium.AlternativeText != updatedMedium.AlternativeText)
        existingMedium.AlternativeText = updatedMedium.AlternativeText;

    if (existingMedium.Description != updatedMedium.Description)
        existingMedium.Description = updatedMedium.Description;

    if (existingMedium.MediumTypeId != updatedMedium.MediumType.MediumTypeId)
        existingMedium.MediumTypeId = updatedMedium.MediumType.MediumTypeId;

    if (existingMedium.MediumUrl != updatedMedium.MediumUrl)
        existingMedium.MediumUrl = updatedMedium.MediumUrl;

    return existingMedium;

Once again, there should be no surprise in the implementation. If you have a look at the other methods, you will find them implemented similarly.


In this post, I explained why we need DTOs and showed you how I implemented them. We also had a look at the mapping extensions to convert the entities to data transfer objects and vice versa. Now that we have them in place, we are able to start implementing our Azure Functions, which is where we are heading to next in the #CASBAN6 blog series.

Until the next post, happy coding, everyone!

Posted by msicc in Azure, Database, Dev Stories, 2 comments
#CASBAN6: Creating A Serverless Blog on Azure with .NET 6 (new series)

#CASBAN6: Creating A Serverless Blog on Azure with .NET 6 (new series)


I was planning to run my blog without WordPress for quite some time. For one, because WordPress is really blown up as a platform. The second reason is more of a practical nature – this project gives me lots of stuff to improve my programming skills. I already started to move my developer website away from WordPress with ASP.NET CORE and Razor Pages. Eventually I arrived at the point where I needed to implement a blog engine for the news section. So, I have two websites (including this one here) that will take advantage of the outcome of this journey.

High Level Architecture

Now that the ‘why’ is clear, let’s have a look at the ‘how’:

There are several layers in my concept. The data layer consists of a serverless MS SQL instance on Azure, on which I will work with the help of Entity Framework Core and Azure Functions for all the CRUD operations of the blog. I will use the powers of Azure API Management, which will allow me to provide a secure layer for the clients – of course, an ASP.NET CORE Website with RazorPages, flanked by a .NET MAUI admin client (no web administration). Once the former two are done, I will also add a mobile client for this blog. It will be the next major update for my existing blog reader that is already in the app stores.

For comments, I will use Disqus. This way, I have a proven comment system where anyone can use his/her favorite account to participate in discussions. They also have an API, so there is a good chance that I will be able to implement Disqus in the Desktop and Mobile clients.

Last but not least, there are (for now) two open points – performance measuring/logging and notifications. I haven’t decided yet how to implement these – but I guess there will be an Azure based implementation as well (until there are good reasons to use another service).

Open Source

Most of the software I will write and blog about in this series will be available publicly on GitHub. You can find the repository already there, including stuff for the next two upcoming blog posts already in there.


I will update this blog post regularly with a link new entries of the series.

Additional note

Please note that I am working on this in my spare time. This may result in delays between the blog posts and the updates committed into the repository on GitHub.

Until the next post – happy coding, everyone!

Title Image by Roman from Pixabay

Posted by msicc in Android, Azure, Dev Stories, iOS, MAUI, Web, 2 comments