Nuget package

How to use the .NET CLI clean-up tools on macOS

How to use the .NET CLI clean-up tools on macOS

Earlier this week, the .NET SDK and Runtimes received some updates. Together with that, also Visual Studio for Mac was updated. Once I got past the installation of all updates, both Visual Studio and Rider were no longer restoring the required NuGet packages for my .NET MAUI project running on .NET 6.

I eventually fixed that issue by cleaning up all the .NET SDKs, Runtimes, workloads and NuGet caches on my MacBook Pro. Read on to learn about the tools I used.

.NET uninstall tool

I have been using the .NET uninstall tool in the past. Unlike on Windows, you have to download the executable from GitHub in its zipped form.

While the releases page shows some terminal commands to unpack and run the tool, they never worked for me as stated there. While I was able to make the new directory with the mkdir command, the unpacking always shows an error. So I opened up Finder and unzipped it manually with the Archive Utility app that ships with macOS.

dotnet-core-uninstall unzipping

After switching to the folder in Terminal, the tool is supposed to show the help. Instead, I got an error showing me that I am not allowed to run this app for security reasons. The OS blocks the execution. If the same happens for you, right click on the extracted executable and select “Open With” followed by “ (default)“. This will prompt you with this screen:

app downloaded from the internet message

Once you click on “Open“, a new Terminal window appears. Close this window, it is unusable as we are already in the exited state. Instead, open a new Terminal and change to the installation folder and call the help command:

cd ~/dotnet-core-uninstall
./dotnet-core-uninstall -h
Terminal with dotnet-core-uninstall help

Now that we are able to run the tool, let’s have a look what we have installed by running the dotnet --list command. We need to call the command twice, once for the installed -sdks and once for the installed -runtimes:

dotnet --list-sdks
dotnet --list-runtimes

You may be as surprised (I was, at least) how many versions you are accumulating over time. They never get removed by newer versions (it’s by design, according to Microsoft). To get rid of all versions except the latest, run the following commands with the uninstall tool (again once for — sdk, once for –runtime):

sudo ./dotnet-core-uninstall remove --all-but-latest --sdk
sudo ./dotnet-core-uninstall remove --all-but-latest --runtime

After uninstalling all previous versions, you may have to reinstall the latest .NET 6 SDK again. You could also use the –-all-but [Versions] command to specify the versions explicitly. No matter which way you’re going, if you run the dotnet --list commands again, you should see something similar to this:

dotnet --list command



dotnet workload command

As I had problems getting the required NuGet packages for my MAUI app, I decided to uninstall all .NET MAUI workloads as well. First, I had a look what is installed with the list command:

dotnet workload list
dotnet workload list result

Once you have that list, you need to call the uninstall command for every single installed workload:

sudo dotnet workload uninstall macos maui-maccatalyst maui-ios maui-android ios maccatalyst maui tvos android

Once they are uninstalled, I cleared the Terminal and installed them all again using the install command:

sudo dotnet workload install macos maui-maccatalyst maui-ios maui-android ios maccatalyst maui tvos android
dotnet workload install result in Terminal

Now we have the latest .NET MAUI workload installed as well as the platform specific workloads as well.


dotnet nuget locals

The final clean-up step involves all NuGet caches on your machine. Yes, you read that right, multiple caches. To see them all, run the following command:

dotnet nuget locals all --list

This will get you something like this:

dotnet nuget locals cache results in terminal

Now let’s get rid of all those old NuGet packages:

sudo dotnet nuget locals all --clear

If you’re lucky, you will see this message:

local nuget caches cleared in terminal

My first attempt was not that successful. I needed to open the global packages’ folder in Finder and delete some remaining packages manually. Only after that, I was able to run the clear command with success.


Neither Visual Studio nor the .NET installer perform clean-up tasks on macOS. Until Microsoft changes their mind here, we will have to clean-up old packages manually to keep our system smoothly running. Luckily, there are at least CLI tools around to help us with that job. As always, I hope this blog post will be helpful for some of you.

Until the next post, happy coding, everyone!

Posted by msicc in Dev Stories, macOS, MAUI, Xamarin, 1 comment
WordPressReader (Standard) updated to version 2.1.0

WordPressReader (Standard) updated to version 2.1.0

Currently, I am working on an update for my blog reader app on iOS to bring it on par with the Android version (which snagged push notifications for new posts already). As my WordPressReader library sits at the core of the application, I made also some updates to this library.

Here is what’s new:

  • based on .netStandard 2.1 (still works across UWP, WPF, Xamarin)
  • activated nullable reference types
  • because of the nullable reference types, updated the entity classes to always include null values (for type safety)
  • fixed a bug where comments in response to pingbacks lead to a crash
  • renamed CreateAnonymousComment to CreateAnonymousCommentAsync
  • other minor fixes

The update to the app is already available via Nuget, while you can check the source code in the Github repo.

What’s next:

I am currently exploring further improvements using C# 8.0, most notably IAsyncEnumerable<T> and ValueTask.

If you have any feedback for the library, feel free to sound off in the comments, open a Github issue or contact me via my social media accounts.

Until the next post, happy coding, everyone!

Title Image by Kevin Phillips from Pixabay

Posted by msicc in Dev Stories, 1 comment
Use NuGets for your common Xamarin (Forms) code (and automate the creation process)

Use NuGets for your common Xamarin (Forms) code (and automate the creation process)

Internal libraries

Writing (or copy and pasting) the same code over and over again is one of those things I try to avoid when writing code. For quite some time, I already organize such code in libraries. Until last year, this required quite some work managing all libraries for each Xamarin platform I used. Luckily, the MSBuild SDK Extras extensions showed up and made everything a whole lot easier, especially after James Montemagno did a detailed explanation on how to get the most out of it for Xamarin plugins/libraries.

Getting started

Even if I repeat some of the steps of James’ post, I’ll start from scratch on the setup part here. I hope to make the whole process straight forward for everyone – that’s why I think it makes sense to show each and every step. Please make sure you are using the new .csproj type. If you need a refresh on that, you can check my post about migrating to it (if needed).


The first step is pulling in MSBuild.Sdk.Extras, which will enable us to target multiple platforms in one single library. For this, we need a global.json file in the solution folder. Right click on the solution name and select ‘Open Folder in File Explorer‘, then just add a new text file and name it appropriately.

The next step is to define the version of the MSBuild.SDK.Extras library we want to use. The current version is 1.6.65, so let’s define it in the file. Just click the ‘Solution and Folders‘ button to find the file in Visual Studio:

switch to folder view

Add these lines into the file and save it:

  "msbuild-sdks": {
    "MSBuild.Sdk.Extras": "1.6.65"

Modifying the project file

Switch back to the Solution view and right click on the .csproj file. Select ‘Edit [ProjectName].csproj‘. Let’s modify and add the project definitions. We’ll start right in the first line. Replace the first line to pull in the MSBuild.Sdk.Extras:

<Project Sdk="MSBuild.Sdk.Extras">

Next, we’re separating the Version tag. This will ensure that we’ll find it very quickly in future within the file:

  <!--separated for accessibility-->

Now we are enabling multiple targets, in this case our Xamarin platforms. Please note that there are two separated versions – one that includes UWP and one that does not. I thought I would be fine to remove the non-UWP one if I include UWP and was precent with some strange build errors that where resolved only by re-adding the deleted line. I do not remember the reason, but I made a comment in my template to not remove it – so let’s just keep it that way.

  <!--make it multi-platform library!-->
    <!--we are handling compile items ourselves below with a custom naming scheme-->
    <TargetFrameworks Condition=" '$(OS)' == 'Windows_NT' ">netstandard2.0;MonoAndroid81;Xamarin.iOS10;uap10.0.16299;</TargetFrameworks>
    <TargetFrameworks Condition=" '$(OS)' != 'Windows_NT' ">netstandard2.0;MonoAndroid81;Xamarin.iOS10;</TargetFrameworks>

Now we will add some default NuGet packages into the project and make sure our file get included only on the correct platform. We follow a simple file naming scheme (Xamarin.Essentials uses the same):


This way, we are able to add all platform specific code together with the shared entry point in a single folder. Let’ start with shared items. These will be available on all platforms listed in the PropertyGroup above:

  <!--shared items-->
    <!--keeping this one ensures everything goes smooth-->
    <PackageReference Include="MSBuild.Sdk.Extras" Version="1.6.65" PrivateAssets="All" />

    <!--most commonly used (by me)-->
    <PackageReference Include="Xamarin.Forms" Version="" />
    <PackageReference Include="Xamarin.Essentials" Version="1.0.1" />

    <!--include content, exclude obj and bin folders-->
    <None Include="**\*.cs;**\*.xml;**\*.axml;**\*.png;**\*.xaml" Exclude="obj\**\*.*;bin\**\*.*;bin;obj" />
    <Compile Include="**\*.shared.cs" />

The ‘**\‘ part in the Include property of the Compile tag ensures MSBuild includes also classes in subfolders. Now let’s add some platform specific rules to the project:

  <ItemGroup Condition=" $(TargetFramework.StartsWith('netstandard')) ">
    <Compile Include="**\*.netstandard.cs" />

  <ItemGroup Condition=" $(TargetFramework.StartsWith('uap10.0')) ">
    <PackageReference Include="Microsoft.NETCore.UniversalWindowsPlatform" Version="6.1.9" />
    <Compile Include="**\*.uwp.cs" />

  <ItemGroup Condition=" $(TargetFramework.StartsWith('MonoAndroid')) ">
    <!--need to reference all those libs to get latest minimum Android SDK version (requirement by Google)... #sigh-->
    <PackageReference Include="Xamarin.Android.Support.Annotations" Version="" />
    <PackageReference Include="Xamarin.Android.Support.Compat" Version="" />
    <PackageReference Include="Xamarin.Android.Support.Core.Utils" Version="" />
    <PackageReference Include="Xamarin.Android.Support.CustomTabs" Version="" />
    <PackageReference Include="Xamarin.Android.Support.v4" Version="" />
    <PackageReference Include="Xamarin.Android.Support.Design" Version="" />
    <PackageReference Include="Xamarin.Android.Support.v7.AppCompat" Version="" />
    <PackageReference Include="Xamarin.Android.Support.v7.CardView" Version="" />
    <PackageReference Include="Xamarin.Android.Support.v7.Palette" Version="" />
    <PackageReference Include="Xamarin.Android.Support.v7.MediaRouter" Version="" />
    <PackageReference Include="Xamarin.Android.Support.Core.UI" Version="" />
    <PackageReference Include="Xamarin.Android.Support.Fragment" Version="" />
    <PackageReference Include="Xamarin.Android.Support.Media.Compat" Version="" />
    <PackageReference Include="Xamarin.Android.Support.v7.RecyclerView" Version="" />
    <PackageReference Include="Xamarin.Android.Support.Transition" Version="" />
    <PackageReference Include="Xamarin.Android.Support.Vector.Drawable" Version="" />
    <PackageReference Include="Xamarin.Android.Support.Vector.Drawable" Version="" />
    <Compile Include="**\*.android.cs" />

  <ItemGroup Condition=" $(TargetFramework.StartsWith('Xamarin.iOS')) ">
    <Compile Include="**\*.ios.cs" />

Two side notes:

  • Do not reference version 6.2.2 of the Microsoft.NETCore.UniversalWindowsPlatform NuGet. There seems to be bug in there that will lead to rejection of your app from the Microsoft Store. Just keep 6.1.9 (for the moment).
  • You may not need all of the Xamarin.Android packages, but there are a bunch of dependencies between them and others, so I decided to keep them all

If you have followed along, hit the save button and close the .csproj file. Verifying everything went well is pretty easy – your solution structure should look like this:


Before we’ll have a look at the NuGet creation part of this post, let’s add some sample code. Just insert this into static partial classes with the appropriate naming scheme for every platform and edit the code to match the platform. The .shared version of this should be empty (for this sample).

     public static partial class Hello
        public static string Name { get; set; }

        public static string Platform { get; set; }

        public static  void Print()
            if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(Name) && !string.IsNullOrEmpty(Platform))
                System.Diagnostics.Debug.WriteLine($"Hello {Name} from {Platform}");
                System.Diagnostics.Debug.WriteLine($"Hello unkown person from {Device.Android}");

Normally, this would be a Renderer or other platform specific code. You should get the idea.

Preparing NuGet package creation

We will now prepare our solution to automatically generate NuGet packages both for DEBUG and RELEASE configurations. Once the packages are created, we will push it to a local (or network) file folder, which serves as our local NuGet-Server. This will fit for most Indie-developers – which tend to not replicate a full blown enterprise infrastructure for their DevOps needs. I will also mention how you could push the packages to an internal NuGet server on a sideline (we are using a similar setup at work).

Adding NuGet Push configurations

One thing we want to make sure is that we are not going to push packages on every compilation of our library. That’s why we need to separate configurations. To add new configurations, open the Configuration Manager in Visual Studio:

In the Configuration Manager dialog, select the ‘<New…>‘ option from the ‘Active solution configuration‘ ComboBox:

Name the new config to fit your needs, I just use DebugNuget which will signal that we are pushing the NuGet package for distribution. I am copying the settings from the Debug configuration and let Visual Studio add the configurations to project files within the solution. Repeat the same for Release configuration.

The result should look like this:

Modifying the project file (again)

If you head over to your project file, you will see the Configurations tag has new entries:


Next, add the properties of your assembly and package:

    <!--assmebly properties-->

  <!--nuget package properties-->

    <PackageReleaseNotes>Xamarin Nugets sample package</PackageReleaseNotes>
    <PackageTags>xamarin, windows, ios, android, xamarin.forms, plugin</PackageTags>

    <Title>Xamarin Nugets</Title>
    <Summary>Xamarin Nugets sample package</Summary>
    <Description>Xamarin Nugets sample package</Description>

    <Owners>MSiccDev Software Development</Owners>
    <Authors>MSiccDev Software Development</Authors>
    <Copyright>MSiccDev Software Development</Copyright>

Configuration specific properties

Now we will add some configuration specific PropertyGroups that control if a package will be created.

Debug and DebugNuget

  <PropertyGroup Condition=" '$(Configuration)'=='Debug' ">
    <!--making this pre-release-->
    <!--needed for debugging!-->

  <PropertyGroup Condition=" '$(Configuration)'=='DebugNuget' ">
    <!--enable package creation-->
    <!--making this pre-release-->
    <!--needed for debugging!-->
    <!--this makes msbuild creating src folder inside the symbols package-->

The Debug configuration enables us to step into the Debug code while we are referencing the project directly during development, while the DebugNuget configuration will also generate a NuGet package including Source and Symbols. This is helpful once you find a bug in the NuGet package and allows us to step into this code also if we reference the NuGet instead of the project. Both configurations will add ‘-pre‘ to the version, making these packages only appear if you tick the ‘Include prerelease‘ CheckBox in the NuGet Package Manager.

Release and ReleaseNuget

  <PropertyGroup Condition=" '$(Configuration)'=='Release' ">

  <PropertyGroup Condition=" '$(Configuration)'=='ReleaseNuget' ">
    <!--enable package creation-->
    <!--include pdb for analytic services-->

The relase configuration goes well with less settings. We do not generate a separated symbols-package here, as the .pdb-file without the source will do well in most cases.

Adding Build Targets

We are close to finish our implementation already. Of course, we want to make sure we push only the latest packages. To ensure this, we are cleaning all generated NuGet packages before we build the project/solution:

  <!--cleaning older nugets-->
  <Target Name="CleanOldNupkg" BeforeTargets="Build">
      <FilesToDelete Include="$(ProjectDir)$(BaseOutputPath)$(Configuration)\$(AssemblyName).*.nupkg"></FilesToDelete>
    <Delete Files="@(FilesToDelete)" />
    <Message Text="Old nupkg in $(ProjectDir)$(BaseOutputPath)$(Configuration) deleted." Importance="High"></Message>

MSBuild provides a lot of options to configure. We are setting the BeforeTargets property of the target to Build, so once we Clean/Build/Rebuild, all old packages will be deleted by the Delete command. Finally, we are printing a message to confirm the deletion.

Pushing the packages

After completing all these steps above, we are ready to distribute our packages. In our case, we are copying the packages to a local folder with the Copy command.

  <!--pushing to local folder (or network path)-->
  <Target Name="PushDebug" AfterTargets="Pack" Condition="'$(Configuration)'=='DebugNuget'">
      <PackageToCopy Include="$(ProjectDir)$(BaseOutputPath)$(Configuration)\$(AssemblyName).*.symbols.nupkg"></PackageToCopy>
    <Copy SourceFiles="@(PackageToCopy)" DestinationFolder="C:\TempLocNuget" />
    <Message Text="Copied '@(PackageToCopy)' to local Nuget folder" Importance="High"></Message>

  <Target Name="PushRelease" AfterTargets="Pack" Condition="'$(Configuration)'=='ReleaseNuget'">
      <PackageToCopy Include="$(ProjectDir)$(BaseOutputPath)$(Configuration)\$(AssemblyName).*.nupkg"></PackageToCopy>
    <Copy SourceFiles="@(PackageToCopy)" DestinationFolder="C:\TempLocNuget" />
    <Message Text="Copied '@(PackageToCopy)' to local Nuget folder" Importance="High"></Message>

Please note that the local folder could be replaced by a network path. You have to ensure the availability of that path – which adds in some additional work if you choose this route.

If you’re running a full NuGet server (as often happens in Enterprise environments), you can push the packages with this command (instead of the Copy command):

<Exec Command="NuGet push "$(ProjectDir)$(BaseOutputPath)$(Configuration)\$(AssemblyName).*.symbols.nupkg" [YourPublishKey] -Source [YourNugetServerUrl]" />

The result

If we now select the DebugNuget/ReleaseNuget configuration, Visual Studio will create our NuGet package and push it to our Nuget folder/server:

Let’s have a look into the NuGet package as well. Open your file location defined above and search your package:

As you can see, the Copy command executed successfully. To inspect NuGet packages, you need the NuGet Package Explorer app. Once installed, just double click the package to view its contents. Your result should be similar to this for the DebugNuGet package:

As you can see, we have both the .pdb files as well as the source in our package as intended.


Even as an Indie developer, you can take advantage of the DevOps options provided with Visual Studio and MSBuild. The MSBuild.Sdk.Extras package enables us to maintain a multi-targeting package for our Xamarin(.Forms) code. The whole process needs some setup, but once you have performed the steps above, extending your libraries is just fast forward.

I planned to write this post for quite some time, and I am happy with doing it as my contribution to the #XamarinMonth (initiated by Luis Matos). As always, I hope this post is helpful for some of you. Feel free to clone and play with the full sample I uploaded on Github.

Until the next post, happy coding, everyone!

Helpful links:

Title image credit

P.S. Feel free to download the official app for my blog (that uses a lot of what I am blogging about):
iOS | Android | Windows 10

Posted by msicc in Azure, Dev Stories, iOS, Windows, Xamarin, 3 comments

[Updated] How to create a multi architecture NuGet Package from a UWP class library

Like I already announced in my last blog post about UWP AppServices, I am going to show you how to create a NuGet package for UWP class libraries. I am going to go through the whole process, and provide you the steps I found as easiest (it may be the case that there are other ways for the single steps, too). I am continuing with my AppServices sample to show you all the steps I did.


The first step is to download the latest NuGet.exe. This command line application will do all the work that is needed to create the package. Once downloaded, let’s do some modifications to our project.

It is good practice to put all the NuGet stuff into a folder in your project. That’s what we’re doing now, adding a folder named NuGet and put the NuGet.exe file in it (create the folder and copy and paste it in file explorer). The next step we would do now is to open the Package Manager Console in Visual Studio and call the nuget.exe with the parameter ‘spec’ to create a .nuspec file. The.xml formatted .nuspec file describes the structure of the NuGet package.

Because we need a multi architecture package for our Universal class library, I prefer another approach. I created a sample .nuspec file that already describes part of the structure that we need.  After pasting the file in, change the file name to match “[projectname].nuspec”. To add the file to your project in Visual Studio, click on the ‘ Show All Files’ button on top of the Solution Explorer Window. Now you will see the previously added NuGet folder and the .nuspec file. Right click on the renamed .nuspec file and select  ‘Include in Project’:


Inside the .nuspec file

Let’s have a look into the .nuspec file. The first part is the ‘metadata’ part, which describes the file’s properties:

        <title>Simple Leet AppService Handler</title>
        <copyright>Copyright ©  2016</copyright>

Just replace the the $-enclosed variables with your data. The more interesting part in this case is the dependencies part. With the Universal app platform, Microsoft introduced the .NETCore package that provides all the APIs. It is very hard to maintain the dependencies manually. Luckily, there is already a Nuget package that helps us to automate this process: NuSpec Dependency Generator.

Just add the package to your project and compile it. That’s it, you have all the dependencies in your .nuspec file:

      <group targetFramework="uap10.0">
        <dependency id="System.Diagnostics.Debug" version="4.0.10" />
        <dependency id="System.Runtime" version="4.0.20" />
        <dependency id="System.Runtime.WindowsRuntime" version="4.0.10" />
        <dependency id="System.Threading.Tasks" version="4.0.10" />

Now that we have the dependencies in place, we’re ready for the next step: creating the package file structure. As we want a multi architecture package, we need to compile the project for every cpu architecture. This is done pretty simple, just select Release mode and build the project for all architectures:

Screenshot (97)

To check if we have all files in place, just open the corresponding architectures’ folder in the bin folder of your project:

Screenshot (98)

The next part is to add these folders to the .nuspec file within the ‘files’ tag:

    <file src="..\bin\ARM\Release\SampleAppServiceConnector.dll" target="runtimes\win10-arm\lib\uap10.0" />
    <file src="..\bin\ARM\Release\SampleAppServiceConnector.pdb" target="runtimes\win10-arm\lib\uap10.0" />
    <file src="..\bin\x64\Release\SampleAppServiceConnector.dll" target="runtimes\win10-x64\lib\uap10.0" />
    <file src="..\bin\x64\Release\SampleAppServiceConnector.pdb" target="runtimes\win10-x64\lib\uap10.0" />
    <file src="..\bin\x86\Release\SampleAppServiceConnector.dll" target="runtimes\win10-x86\lib\uap10.0" />
    <file src="..\bin\x86\Release\SampleAppServiceConnector.pdb" target="runtimes\win10-x86\lib\uap10.0" />

Noticed that we use the ‘runtimes’ folder with the corresponding architecture structure folders? This is how we need to set it up for multi architectural packages. Including the .pdb files is always a good practice, even with the missing symbolication in UWP applications (at least for now. I was told from inside Microsoft that they are working on this, but it seems to be a very complicated process for .NET native compiled applications).

Very important: the entry reference

This alone does not work, though. We need a reference that we can use as entry point for our package. To do this, we need to add an additional folder entry to our .nuspec file:

    <file src="..\bin\Release\SampleAppServiceConnector.dll" target="ref\uap10.0" />
    <file src="..\bin\Release\SampleAppServiceConnector.pri" target="ref\uap10.0" />

[Update:] Now that we have added this folder structure to the .nuspec file, the only thing we need to do is add an AnyCPU compiled .dll. Regarding some feedback I received on Twitter, it should work if you compile the library as AnyCPU like a lot of devs are used to. I you do not have success with that like me, you can also convert the x86 .dll into an AnyCPU .dll by removing the 32Bit-flag.  Here is how to do it:

  1. Copy the x86-.dll file  into the Release folder under the bin folder of your project
  2. Copy the x86-.dll and .pri file into the Release folder
  3. open the Visual Studio Developer Command Prompt (type ‘dev’ into the start menu, it will appear there)
  4. type:  corflags.exe /32bitreq- [path to Release folder]\[dll-Name].dll
  5. the result should look like this:Screenshot (101)

If you have additional files like xaml files, you would need to add a new folder in the uap10.0 folder (with the same name that your project has). I’ll update this post and the sample once I have a matching sample at hand.

Creating and testing the package!

Now we are finally able to pack the NuGet package. As we have the Developer Command Prompt already open, lets change the running directory to match the NuGet folder in our project. All we then need to do is to run the pack command of the nuget.exe that we already placed in there:


And that’s it. We have our NuGet Package in place. Now let’s test our package, before we are going to upload it to All you need to do is to have a folder for your NuGet packages on your machine. I made a folder called ‘TestNuget’ on mine, and copied the package into it (which is the same as the Nuget push command we’ll see later).

To add this folder as package source, open the ‘Options’ menu in Visual Studio and select ‘Package Sources’ in the NuGet Package Manager entry. Hit the add symbol on top and add your folder:

Screenshot (104)

Now if you open the Package Manager and select your local folder as source, you will be able to install and test your package:


Publishing the package to (or your NuGet server)

The final step is to publish the newly generated package to or your own NuGet server. As we still have the Developer CMD opened, we simply use the following command:

nuget push [path to your package.dll] [ API Key]

Another alternative would be to use the website to upload the package: (the page is self explanatory).

That’s it, your NuGet package is available for all you consider to use it. I also updated the sample of my last blog post on GitHub to include these changes, if you want to play around.

Some of you may go a different route for some steps. I have found this a good way that is also kind of memorable (for me). I would love to hear feedback on this and to discuss this, so feel free to leave me a comment.

Like always, I hope this post is helpful for some of you. Happy coding, everyone!

Posted by msicc in Archive, 6 comments

How to add and consume an AppService to your UWP app (complete walkthrough)

One of the very cool and helpful new features Microsoft added for UWP apps are AppServices. AppServices allow your application to provide functionality to other applications without even being launched. This post shows how to add and consume an AppService.

Creating the AppService

An AppService is a background task that is hosted by your application. To add an AppService to your existing application, right click on the solution name in the Solution Explorer and select ‘add new  project’. Under category Windows\Universal, select ‘Windows Runtime Component’, give it a name and click on ‘OK’:


This adds a new project to your solution. Rename or Replace Class1.cs to something that matches your need (in my sample, I just use ‘Handler’). The next step is to implement the IBackgroundTask interface:


This will add the ‘Run(IBackgroundTaskInstance taskInstance)’ method to the class. Before we continue with to integrate our AppService further into the system, we need to declare two members in the Handler class:

        private BackgroundTaskDeferral _backgroundTaskDeferral;
        private AppServiceConnection _appServiceConnection;

Now that we have those two in place, let’s have a look inside the Run method:

       public void Run(IBackgroundTaskInstance taskInstance)
            //get the task instance deferral
            this._backgroundTaskDeferral = taskInstance.GetDeferral();

            //hooking up to the Canceled event to close app connection
            taskInstance.Canceled += OnTaskCanceled;

            //getting the AppServiceTriggerDetails and hooking up to the RequestReceived event
            var details = (AppServiceTriggerDetails)taskInstance.TriggerDetails;
            _appServiceConnection = details.AppServiceConnection;
            _appServiceConnection.RequestReceived += OnRequestReceived;

The first step is to get a background task deferral. This allows the service to run asynchronous code against the background Task without crashing. The next step is to handle the background task’s Canceled event. Even if the Task get’s cancelled, we must complete the process and tell the OS that we have finished. If we won’t do this, the AppService will stop working on the first cancel operation. To do so, add this code to your Canceled event handling method:


Last but not least, we need to handle the request that the AppService received. To do so, we need to get the AppServiceTriggerDetails from our BackgroundTask. This allows us to get  a reference to the AppServiceConnection, which provides the event ‘RequestReceived’ that we want to handle.

Within our RequestReceived event handling method, the effective work is done. As this is also an asynchronous action, we first need to get again a reference to the event’s Deferral:

var msgDeferral = args.GetDeferral();

The next step is to get the data from the event’s AppServiceRequestReceivedEventArgs:

            var input = args.Request.Message;

This gives us a ValueSet (which works like a Dictionary), which we need to parse to get the input data we need:

var response = (string) input["question"];

The ValueSet entries you are setting up here are the parameters your consumer has to provide. In my sample, I have only a single parameter called ‘question’, but it works also well with more parameters. After we pulled the parameters out of the ValueSet, we can do the work our AppService is supposed to do.

It is a good practice to separate the function you want to provide in the AppService in a separate project. You need to write the code only once, but can use it in your main application as well as in the AppService. In my Sample, this is done in the AppServiceResponder project. It may look like an overkill in this case, but if you have more complex logic than the sample it will absolutely make sense.

I am wrapping the work into a try/finally block as we need to complete the async operation in any case to keep our AppService running. This way, even if the work is not completed successfully, at least we come out clean of the AppService Task. Within the try part of the try/finally block, we are doing the work that the service is supposed to do. The result needs to be passed as a ValueSet again. To effectively send the result to the requesting app, we use this line of code:

await args.Request.SendResponseAsync(result);

Here is the full method for reference:

        private async void OnRequestReceived(AppServiceConnection sender, AppServiceRequestReceivedEventArgs args)
            //async operation needs a deferral
            var msgDeferral = args.GetDeferral();

            //picking up the data ValueSet
            var input = args.Request.Message;
            var result = new ValueSet();

            //parsing the ValueSet
            var response = (string) input["question"];

                //as long as the app service connection is established we are using the same instance even if data changes.
                //to avoid crashes, clear the result before getting the new one

                if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(response))
                    var responderResponse = AppServiceResponder.Responder.Instance.GetResponse(response);

                    result.Add("Status", "OK");
                    result.Add("response", responderResponse);

                await args.Request.SendResponseAsync(result);
            //using finally because we need to tell the OS we have finished, no matter of the result

Declaring the App Service in the host app

The final step we need to apply is to declare the AppService in our Package.appxmanifest. Declaring the AppService is pretty simple. Just select ‘App Service’ in the dropdown and hit ‘Add’. Give it a name (Microsoft recommends ‘reverse domain name style ‘,  so I used it. The last step is to declare the Entry point, which is AppServiceNamespace.ClassName (replace with yours).

The result should look like this:


Now build the solution. If all is set up correct, you have made an application implementing an AppService.

Creating the AppService Connector

Like I recommend to extract functionality that runs inside the AppService, I do so for the code that connects the app into a separate project. This allows you to reuse the project in multiple apps. An additional advantage is that you can create a Nuget package for this separate project to provide this functionality to other developers (I will write a separate post about this to keep this one focused on the AppService).

After adding a new project to the Solution, rename/replace also here Class1. I named my handler class just Connector. To make it a no brainer to use the connector, I implemented the class as singleton:

        private static Connector _instance;
        public static Connector Instance => _instance ?? (_instance = new Connector());

After that, I added an asynchronous Task that returns the AppService’s response. Let’s have a look inside the task. Inside the using statement for the AppServiceconnection, the first thing we need to do is to call the AppService with these three lines of code:

                //declaring the service and the package family name
                SampleAppServiceConnection.AppServiceName = "com.msiccdev.sampleappservice";

                //this one can be found in the Package.appxmanifest file
                SampleAppServiceConnection.PackageFamilyName = "acc75b1a-8b90-4f18-a2c4-08b0d700f1c6_62er76fr5b6k0";

                //trying to connect to he AppService
                AppServiceConnectionStatus status = await SampleAppServiceConnection.OpenAsync();

We’ll get a AppServiceConnectionStatus back, which helps us to deside how to go on in the task. If we do not have success in getting a connection to the AppService, I am returning an error description. For this, I created a simple helper method:

        private string GetStatusDetail(AppServiceConnectionStatus status)
            var result = "";
            switch (status)
                case AppServiceConnectionStatus.Success:
                    result = "connected";
                case AppServiceConnectionStatus.AppNotInstalled:
                    result = "AppServiceSample seems to be not installed";
                case AppServiceConnectionStatus.AppUnavailable:
                    result =
                        "App is currently not available (could be running an update or the drive it was installed to is not available)";
                case AppServiceConnectionStatus.AppServiceUnavailable:
                    result = "App is installed, but the Service does not respond";
                case AppServiceConnectionStatus.Unknown:
                    result = "Unknown error with the AppService";

            return result;

For the case we are successful with our connection attempt , I am sending the needed ValueSet with these lines:

                    var input = new ValueSet() {{"question", question}};
                    AppServiceResponse response = await SampleAppServiceConnection.SendMessageAsync(input);

I am using a simple ValueSet with just one value here, but I have already done it with a more complex structure and this works as well. I haven’t reached any limits by now, but I think that they are the same as for all Background Tasks (don’t throw stones at me if it is different). The only thing I then need to do is to handle the response according to its status with this switch statement:

                    switch (response.Status)
                        case AppServiceResponseStatus.Success:
                            result = (string) response.Message["response"];
                        case AppServiceResponseStatus.Failure:
                            result = "app service called failed, most likely due to wrong parameters sent to it";
                        case AppServiceResponseStatus.ResourceLimitsExceeded:
                            result = "app service exceeded the resources allocated to it and had to be terminated";
                        case AppServiceResponseStatus.Unknown:
                            result = "unknown error while sending the request";

As we already know by know, we receive a ValueSet as response message. In my sample, I am returning only the response string. That’s it, we are already able to run use the AppService via the Connector. For demo purposes, I added also a simple AppService consumer app. Once the user puts in a question and hits the answer button, the result from the AppService gets displayed. All we need is just one line of code:

            AnswerTextBlock.Text = await SampleAppServiceConnector.Connector.Instance.GetResponse(QuestionTextBox.Text);

Pretty easy to use, right? Here is a screen shot from the consumer app:


That’s all we need for our AppService. Bonus of the project structure I used: You can provide a Nuget Package for other devs to consume your AppService. How? I will write about this in my next blog post.

Even if this is not a MVVM structured app, it absolutely works in there, too. If you want to have a look on a live in the Store app that uses MVVM and an AppService, click here. For using the AppService within your app, just download this Nuget Package into your app. Otherwise, I created a complete working sample and pushed it on my Github account right here. Feel free to play around with it to explore AppServices a bit more. As always, I hope this post is helpful for some of you.

Happy coding, everyone!

Posted by msicc in Archive, 3 comments