ResourceDictionary

Use the iOS system colors in Xamarin.Forms (Updated)

Use the iOS system colors in Xamarin.Forms (Updated)

Update

After publishing this post, Gerald Versluis from Microsoft responded on Twitter with an interesting information on how to get the system colors into our ResourceDictionary without using the DependencyService:

I had a quick look at the NamedPlatformColor class, but noticed that the implementation in Xamarin.Forms is incomplete. Gerald will try to update them. Once that is done, I will update the library on Github and this post again.

Original version below:


Overview

Let me give you a short overview first. To achieve our goal to use the iOS system colors, we need just a few easy steps:

  1. Xamarin.Forms interface that defines the colors
  2. Xamarin.iOS implementation of that interface
  3. ResourceDictionary to make the colors available in XAML
  4. Merging this dictionary with the application’s resource
  5. Handling of the OnRequestedThemeChanged event

Now that the plan is clear, let’s go into details.

ISystemColors interface

We will use the Xamarin.Forms DependencyService to get the colors from iOS to Xamarin.Forms. Let’s create our common interface:

using Xamarin.Forms;

namespace [YOURNAMESPACEHERE]
{
    public interface ISystemColors
    {
        Color SystemRed { get; }
        Color SystemOrange { get; }
        Color SystemYellow { get; }
        Color SystemGreen { get; }
        Color SystemMint { get; }
        Color SystemTeal { get; }
        Color SystemCyan { get; }
        Color SystemBlue { get; }
        Color SystemIndigo { get; }
        Color SystemPurple { get; }
        Color SystemPink { get; }
        Color SystemBrown { get; }
        Color SystemGray { get; }
        Color SystemGray2 { get; }
        Color SystemGray3 { get; }
        Color SystemGray4 { get; }
        Color SystemGray5 { get; }
        Color SystemGray6 { get; }
        Color SystemLabel { get; }
        Color SecondaryLabel { get; }
        Color TertiaryLabel { get; }
        Color QuaternaryLabel { get; }
        Color Placeholder { get; }
        Color Separator { get; }
        Color OpaqueSeparator { get; }
        Color LinkColor { get; }
        Color FillColor { get; }
        Color SecondaryFillColor { get; }
        Color TertiaryFillColor { get; }
        Color QuaternaryFillColor { get; }
        Color SystemBackgroundColor { get; }
        Color SecondarySystemBackgroundColor { get; }
        Color TertiarySystemBackgroundColor { get; }
        Color SystemGroupedBackgroundColor { get; }
        Color SecondarySystemGroupedBackgroundColor { get; }
        Color TertiarySystemGroupedBackgroundColor { get; }
        Color DarkTextColor { get; }
        Color LightTextColor { get; }
    }
}

As we are not able to change any of the system colors, we are just defining getters in the interface.

The Xamarin.iOS platform implementation

The implementation is straight forward. We are implementing the interface and just get the values for each system color. The list is based on Apple’s documentation for human interface and UI element colors.

using [YOURNAMESPACEHERE];

using UIKit;

using Xamarin.Forms;
using Xamarin.Forms.Platform.iOS;

[assembly: Dependency(typeof(SystemColors))]
namespace [YOURNAMESPACEHERE]
{
    //https://developer.apple.com/design/human-interface-guidelines/ios/visual-design/color/
    //https://developer.apple.com/documentation/uikit/uicolor/ui_element_colors

    public class SystemColors : ISystemColors
    {
        #region System Colors
        public Color SystemRed => UIColor.SystemRedColor.ToColor();
        public Color SystemOrange => UIColor.SystemOrangeColor.ToColor();
        public Color SystemYellow => UIColor.SystemYellowColor.ToColor();
        public Color SystemGreen => UIColor.SystemGreenColor.ToColor();
        public Color SystemMint => UIColor.SystemMintColor.ToColor();
        public Color SystemTeal => UIColor.SystemTealColor.ToColor();
        public Color SystemCyan => UIColor.SystemCyanColor.ToColor();
        public Color SystemBlue => UIColor.SystemBlueColor.ToColor();
        public Color SystemIndigo => UIColor.SystemIndigoColor.ToColor();
        public Color SystemPurple => UIColor.SystemPurpleColor.ToColor();
        public Color SystemPink => UIColor.SystemPinkColor.ToColor();
        public Color SystemBrown => UIColor.SystemBrownColor.ToColor();


        public Color SystemGray => UIColor.SystemGrayColor.ToColor();
        public Color SystemGray2 => UIColor.SystemGray2Color.ToColor();
        public Color SystemGray3 => UIColor.SystemGray3Color.ToColor();
        public Color SystemGray4 => UIColor.SystemGray4Color.ToColor();
        public Color SystemGray5 => UIColor.SystemGray5Color.ToColor();
        public Color SystemGray6 => UIColor.SystemGray6Color.ToColor();
        #endregion

        #region UI Element Colors
        public Color SystemLabel => UIColor.LabelColor.ToColor();
        public Color SecondaryLabel => UIColor.SecondaryLabelColor.ToColor();
        public Color TertiaryLabel => UIColor.TertiaryLabelColor.ToColor();
        public Color QuaternaryLabel => UIColor.QuaternaryLabelColor.ToColor();
        public Color Placeholder => UIColor.PlaceholderTextColor.ToColor();
        public Color Separator => UIColor.SeparatorColor.ToColor();
        public Color OpaqueSeparator => UIColor.SeparatorColor.ToColor();
        public Color LinkColor => UIColor.SeparatorColor.ToColor();

        public Color FillColor => UIColor.SystemFillColor.ToColor();
        public Color SecondaryFillColor => UIColor.SecondarySystemFillColor.ToColor();
        public Color TertiaryFillColor => UIColor.TertiarySystemFillColor.ToColor();
        public Color QuaternaryFillColor => UIColor.QuaternarySystemFillColor.ToColor();

        public Color SystemBackgroundColor => UIColor.SystemBackgroundColor.ToColor();
        public Color SecondarySystemBackgroundColor => UIColor.SecondarySystemBackgroundColor.ToColor();
        public Color TertiarySystemBackgroundColor => UIColor.TertiarySystemBackgroundColor.ToColor();

        public Color SystemGroupedBackgroundColor => UIColor.SystemGroupedBackgroundColor.ToColor();
        public Color SecondarySystemGroupedBackgroundColor => UIColor.SecondarySystemGroupedBackgroundColor.ToColor();
        public Color TertiarySystemGroupedBackgroundColor => UIColor.TertiarySystemGroupedBackgroundColor.ToColor();

        public Color DarkTextColor => UIColor.DarkTextColor.ToColor();
        public Color LightTextColor => UIColor.LightTextColor.ToColor();

        #endregion
    }
}

Do not forget to add the Dependency attribute on top of the implementation, otherwise it won’t work.

The ResourceDictionary

As I prefer defining my UI in XAML in Xamarin.Forms, I naturally want those colors to be available there as well. This can be done by loading the colors into a ResourceDictionary. As you might remember, I prefer codeless ResourceDictionary implementations. This time, however, we need the code-behind file to make the ResourceDictionary work for us.

First, add a new ResourceDictionary:

Add_ResourceDictionary_XAML

Then, in the code-behind file, we are using the DependencyService of Xamarin.Forms to add the colors to the ResourceDictionary:

using Xamarin.Forms;
using Xamarin.Forms.Xaml;

[assembly: XamlCompilation(XamlCompilationOptions.Compile)]
namespace [YOURNAMESPACEHERE]
{
    public partial class SystemColorsIosResourceDictionary
    {
        public SystemColorsIosResourceDictionary()
        {
            InitializeComponent();

            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.SystemRed), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().SystemRed);
            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.SystemOrange), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().SystemOrange);
            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.SystemYellow), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().SystemYellow);
            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.SystemGreen), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().SystemGreen);
            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.SystemMint), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().SystemMint);
            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.SystemTeal), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().SystemTeal);
            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.SystemCyan), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().SystemCyan);
            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.SystemBlue), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().SystemBlue);
            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.SystemIndigo), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().SystemIndigo);
            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.SystemPurple), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().SystemPurple);
            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.SystemPink), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().SystemPink);
            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.SystemBrown), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().SystemBrown);


            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.SystemGray), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().SystemGray);
            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.SystemGray2), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().SystemGray2);
            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.SystemGray3), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().SystemGray3);
            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.SystemGray4), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().SystemGray4);
            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.SystemGray5), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().SystemGray5);
            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.SystemGray6), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().SystemGray6);

            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.SystemLabel), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().SystemLabel);
            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.SecondaryLabel), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().SecondaryLabel);
            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.TertiaryLabel), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().TertiaryLabel);
            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.QuaternaryLabel), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().QuaternaryLabel);

            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.Placeholder), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().Placeholder);
            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.Separator), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().Separator);
            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.OpaqueSeparator), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().OpaqueSeparator);
            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.LinkColor), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().LinkColor);

            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.FillColor), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().FillColor);
            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.SecondaryFillColor), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().SecondaryFillColor);
            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.TertiaryFillColor), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().TertiaryFillColor);
            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.QuaternaryFillColor), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().QuaternaryFillColor);

            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.SystemBackgroundColor), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().SystemBackgroundColor);
            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.SecondarySystemBackgroundColor), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().SecondarySystemBackgroundColor);
            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.TertiarySystemBackgroundColor), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().TertiarySystemBackgroundColor);

            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.SystemGroupedBackgroundColor), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().SystemGroupedBackgroundColor);
            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.SecondarySystemGroupedBackgroundColor), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().SecondarySystemGroupedBackgroundColor);
            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.TertiarySystemGroupedBackgroundColor), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().TertiarySystemGroupedBackgroundColor);

            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.DarkTextColor), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().DarkTextColor);
            this.Add(nameof(ISystemColors.LightTextColor), DependencyService.Get<ISystemColors>().LightTextColor);

        }
    }
}

That’s all for the implementation. Now let’s start having a look at how to use the whole code we wrote until now.

Merging the ResourceDictionary

In Xamarin.Forms, we are able to merge ResourceDictionary classes to make them available for the whole app or on view/page level only. I consider our above created dictionary as an app-level dictionary. On top, to make it reusable, I put all these classes in a separate multi-platform library, which you can find here on Github.

Please note that the syntax will be a little different if you implement the ResourceDictionary directly in your app. Using the library approach, you will merge the dictionary in this way in App.xaml:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<Application
    x:Class="SystemColorsTest.App"
    xmlns="http://xamarin.com/schemas/2014/forms"
    xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2009/xaml"
    xmlns:systemcolors="clr-namespace:MSiccDev.Libs.iOS.SystemColors;assembly=MSiccDev.Libs.iOS.SystemColors">
    <Application.Resources>
        <ResourceDictionary>
            <ResourceDictionary.MergedDictionaries>
                <systemcolors:SystemColorsIosResourceDictionary />
                <!--  more dictionaries here  -->
            </ResourceDictionary.MergedDictionaries>
        </ResourceDictionary>
    </Application.Resources>
</Application>

Responding to system theme changes

Even if I personally only change the system theme at runtime for testing themes in my apps, your users may do so frequently. Luckily, it is just a matter of handling an event to handle this scenario. In your App.xaml.cs file, register for the RequestedThemeChanged event within the constructor:

        public App()
        {
            InitializeComponent();

            Application.Current.RequestedThemeChanged += OnRequestedThemeChanged;

            this.MainVm = new MainViewModel();
            MainPage mainPage = new MainPage()
            {
                BindingContext = this.MainVm
            };

            MainPage = mainPage;
        }

As the system colors respond to the system theme change, we need to reload them to get these changes.

Within the OnRequestedThemeChanged method, we are first getting the actual merged ResourceDictionary instance. Then, we will remove this instance and register a new instance of the ResourceDictionary. This will lead to a full reload of the system colors from iOS into the app. Here is the code:

private void OnRequestedThemeChanged(object sender, AppThemeChangedEventArgs e)
{
    ResourceDictionary iosResourceDict = App.Current.Resources.MergedDictionaries.SingleOrDefault(dict => dict.GetType() == typeof(SystemColorsIosResourceDictionary));

    if (iosResourceDict != null)
    {
        App.Current.Resources.MergedDictionaries.Remove(iosResourceDict);
        App.Current.Resources.MergedDictionaries.Add(new SystemColorsIosResourceDictionary());
    }
}

That’s it, we are now ready to use the colors in XAML and our app adapts to system theme changes. Here is a sample XAML which I wrote to test the colors:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<ContentPage
    x:Class="SystemColorsTest.MainPage"
    xmlns="http://xamarin.com/schemas/2014/forms"
    xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2009/xaml"
    xmlns:local="clr-namespace:SystemColorsTest"
    x:DataType="local:MainViewModel"
    BackgroundColor="{DynamicResource SystemBackgroundColor}">

    <StackLayout>
        <Frame
            Padding="12,42,24,12"
            BackgroundColor="{DynamicResource SystemGray3}"
            CornerRadius="0">
            <Label
                FontSize="36"
                HorizontalTextAlignment="Center"
                Text="iOS SystemColors in XF"
                TextColor="{AppThemeBinding Dark={DynamicResource LightTextColor},
                                            Light={DynamicResource DarkTextColor}}" />
        </Frame>

        <ScrollView>
            <StackLayout BindableLayout.ItemsSource="{Binding SystemColors}">
                <BindableLayout.ItemTemplate>
                    <DataTemplate>
                        <Frame
                            Margin="6,3"
                            x:DataType="local:SystemColorViewModel"
                            BackgroundColor="{Binding Value}">
                            <Label Text="{Binding Name}" />
                        </Frame>
                    </DataTemplate>
                </BindableLayout.ItemTemplate>
            </StackLayout>
        </ScrollView>
    </StackLayout>
</ContentPage>

Please note that I use DynamicResource instead of StaticResource, even if some colors are static. Using DynamicResource forces the app to reload the colors, and there are some that change (like the SystemGray color palette).

Conclusion

Using the iOS system colors in Xamarin.Forms isn’t that complicated with this implementation. If you have more platforms, you could implement the same technique for the other platforms. As I am focusing on iOS for the moment, I just wrote that part. But who knows, maybe this will be extended in the future.

As always, I hope this post will be helpful for some of you.

Until the next post, happy coding, everyone!

Posted by msicc in Dev Stories, iOS, Xamarin, 5 comments
#XFQaD: Compile XAML without code behind in Xamarin.Forms

#XFQaD: Compile XAML without code behind in Xamarin.Forms

How I discovered this #XFQaD

When I was reorganizing the application resources on my current side project, I decided to create some thematically divided ResourceDictionary files. This has led me to do a quick research on Xamarin.Forms resource dictionaries.

If you’re doing this research, you will stumble upon this post from 2018 (!), where the hint to the magic I’ll show you soon was hidden.

Until now, I only used this with ResourceDictionary files. Maybe it will be helpful also for other XAML resources like controls (I will try that in the future).

How to make XAML only files compile

Add a new XAML file (sample is still ResourceDictionary) to your project:

Add_ResourceDictionary

Delete the code behind file, and add your XAML code. Before hitting the Build button, add this line immediately after the .xml file header:

<?xaml-comp compile="true" ?>

This line is where the magic happens. It tells the compiler to include the XAML file in the Build, pretty much like it does with XAML compile attribute in the code behind file.

Conclusion

The only place where I found this hint was the blog post mentioned above. Neither the docs on XAML Compilation nor the docs on resource dictionaries are mentioning this trick. It somehow went quietly from the nightly builds into production code.

Using this trick, we are able to have a more clean project structure. As always, I hope this post will be helpful for some of you.

Until the next post, happy coding!

Posted by msicc in Dev Stories, 9 comments
[Updated] A workaround for Xamarin Forms 2.5 bug that prevents resource declaration in App.xaml

[Updated] A workaround for Xamarin Forms 2.5 bug that prevents resource declaration in App.xaml

Update: Xamarin appearently solved this problem with Service Release 3 for Xamarin Forms 2.5. I can confirm it works in the app that caused me to write this post.

Additional note: the forms:prefix is no longer needed, just insert the <ResourceDictionary>tag.


If you have a Windows background like I do, one of the most normal things for applications is to create keyed Resources in App.xaml to make them available throughout the app. Something like this should look familiar:

<forms:ResourceDictionary >
    <viewModels:ViewModelLocator x:Key="Locator"></viewModels:ViewModelLocator>
    <forms:Color x:Key="MainAccentColor">#1e73be</forms:Color>
    <forms:Color x:Key="LightAccentColor">#61a1f1</forms:Color>
    <forms:Color x:Key="DarkAccentColor">#00488d</forms:Color>
    <forms:Color x:Key="MainBackgroundColor">#f4f4f4</forms:Color>
</forms:ResourceDictionary>

This is also possible in Xamarin.Forms. Sadly, Xamarin.Forms 2.5 introduced an ugly bug where this declarations throw an ArgumentException, telling us the key(s) already exist in the dictionary (see Bugzilla here). I can confirm that this bug affects at least UWP, Android and iOS applications which use such an implementation.

As this is a show-stopping bug, I had to find a way to work around it for the moment. In such cases, I always try to find a way that has only very little impact. For this particular bug, I just moved the declaration of the resources into the code-behind file, which keeps the rest of my code unchanged. I just created a method that does the work I originally had in the .xaml-file:

//needed because of Xamarin Bug  https://bugzilla.xamarin.com/show_bug.cgi?id=60788
private void CreateResourceDictionary()
{
    //making sure there is only one dictionary
    if (this.Resources == null)
        this.Resources = new ResourceDictionary();

    //making sure there is only one key
    if (!this.Resources.ContainsKey("Locator"))
    {
        this.Resources.Add("Locator", ViewModels.ViewModelLocator.Instance);
    }

    if (!this.Resources.ContainsKey("MainAccentColor"))
    {
        this.Resources.Add("MainAccentColor", Color.FromHex("#1e73be"));
    }

    if (!this.Resources.ContainsKey("LightAccentColor"))
    {
        this.Resources.Add("LightAccentColor", Color.FromHex("#61a1f1"));
    }

    if (!this.Resources.ContainsKey("DarkAccentColor"))
    {
        this.Resources.Add("DarkAccentColor", Color.FromHex("#00488d"));
    }

    if (!this.Resources.ContainsKey("MainBackgroundColor"))
    {
        this.Resources.Add("MainBackgroundColor", Color.FromHex("#f4f4f4"));
    }
}

This makes the application running again like it did before. Once the bug in Xamarin.Forms is fixed, I just have to delete this method and uncomment the XAML-declarations to get back to the state where I was prior to Xamarin.Forms 2.5.

If you are experiencing the same bug, I recommend to also comment on the Bugzilla-Entry (link).

As always, I hope this post is helpful for some of you.

Happy coding!

 

 

Posted by msicc in Android, Dev Stories, iOS, UWP, Xamarin, 4 comments